Materials Synthesis, Deposition, and Processing

Laser microwelding of thin Al layers for interconnection of crystalline Si solar cells: analysis of process limits for ns and μs lasers

[+] Author Affiliations
Henning Schulte-Huxel, Susanne Blankemeyer, Sarah Kajari-Schröder

Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin, Am Ohrberg 1, Emmerthal 31860, Germany

Rolf Brendel

Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin, Am Ohrberg 1, Emmerthal 31860, Germany

Leibniz University of Hanover, Institute for Solid-State Physics, Appelstrasse 2, Hannover 30167, Germany

J. Photon. Energy. 4(1), 041597 (Aug 28, 2014). doi:10.1117/1.JPE.4.041597
History: Received May 3, 2014; Revised July 12, 2014; Accepted August 4, 2014
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Abstract.  We investigated a laser welding process for contacting aluminum-metallized crystalline silicon solar cells to a 10-μm-thick aluminum layer on a glass substrate. We analyzed the threshold for laser-induced damage in dependence on the solar cell metallization thickness by applying the process on SiNx passivated lifetime samples. In addition, we measured the mechanical failure stress of the laser welds by perpendicular tear-off. We applied two types of laser processes; one used single or multiple 20-ns-laser pulses at 355 nm with fluences between 12 and 40J/cm2, and the other used single 1.2-μs-laser pulses at 1064 nm with 33 to 73J/cm2. The ns-laser pulses were able to contact down to 1-μm-thick aluminum layers on silicon without inducing laser damage to the silicon and led to a sufficiently strong mechanical contact. In the case of μs-laser pulses, the limiting thickness was 2μm. Both laser systems were compared and discussed with respect to the theory of laser-induced forward transfer. The application was shown by contacting solar cells with 2-μm Al metallization on the rear side using μs-laser pulses proving a damage-free contacting.

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© 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Henning Schulte-Huxel ; Susanne Blankemeyer ; Sarah Kajari-Schröder and Rolf Brendel
"Laser microwelding of thin Al layers for interconnection of crystalline Si solar cells: analysis of process limits for ns and μs lasers", J. Photon. Energy. 4(1), 041597 (Aug 28, 2014). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JPE.4.041597


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