Photovoltaic Materials, Devices, and Technologies

Morphology-defined interaction of copper phthalocyanine with O2/H2O

[+] Author Affiliations
Eric S. Muckley

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States

University of Tennessee, Bredesen Center for Energy Science and Engineering, 444 Greve Hall, 821 Volunteer Boulevard, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-3394, United States

Nicholas Miller, Thomas Gredig

California State University Long Beach, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, California 90840-9505, United States

Christopher B. Jacobs, Ilia N. Ivanov

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States

J. Photon. Energy. 6(4), 045501 (Nov 01, 2016). doi:10.1117/1.JPE.6.045501
History: Received August 16, 2016; Accepted October 14, 2016
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Abstract.  Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is an important hole transport layer for organic photovoltaics (OPVs), but interaction with ambient gas/vapor may lead to changes in its electronic properties and limit OPV device lifetimes. CuPc films of thickness 25 and 100 nm were grown by thermal sublimation at 25°C, 150°C, and 250°C in order to vary morphology. We measured electrical resistance and film mass in situ during exposure to controlled pulses of O2 and H2O vapor. CuPc films deposited at 250°C showed a factor of 5 higher uptake of O2 as detected by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), possibly due to the formation of β-CuPc at T>200°C which allows higher O2 mobility between stacked molecules. While weight-based measurements stabilize after 10  min of gas exposure, resistance response stabilizes over times >1  h, suggesting that mass change occurs by rapid adsorption at active surface sites whereas resistive response is dominated by slow diffusion of adsorbates into the bulk film. The 25 nm films exhibit higher resistive response than 100 nm films after an hour of O2/H2O exposure due to fast analyte diffusion down to the film/electrode interface. We found evidence of decoupling of CuPc from the gold-coated QCM crystal due to preferential adsorption of O2/H2O molecules on gold.

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© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Eric S. Muckley ; Nicholas Miller ; Christopher B. Jacobs ; Thomas Gredig and Ilia N. Ivanov
"Morphology-defined interaction of copper phthalocyanine with O2/H2O", J. Photon. Energy. 6(4), 045501 (Nov 01, 2016). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JPE.6.045501


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